Relatively short-legged, stocky antelope (95-105 kg) with long corkscrew horns. Strong facial markings and distinctive mop of dark brown hair. Coat colour changes from bright white in summer, hot season months to darker grey in winter.
Highly adapted desert-dweller. Pale coloration and large hooves are adaptations to hot sandy habitat. Nomadic species, exploiting ephemeral annual pastures and more permanent perennial grazing. Movement out of the desert during periods of drought or during hot season in search of shade and grazing.
Forms small mixed herds of up to a dozen individuals, although larger groupings do occur in areas of favourable grazing or during seasonal movements to new pasture.
Inhabits sandy desert with dune fields and firmer sand sheets. Strong seasonal association with areas of perennial desert pastures composed of tussock grasses (Stipagrostis spp.) and succulent thorn scrub (Cornulaca).
Distribution currently restricted to a narrow band of desert between eastern Niger and western Chad. Possible vagrants from Niger to southern Algeria. Situation unknown in former strongholds in Mauritania.
Critically Endangered with probably less than 300 in the wild. Last major population of around 200 in the Tin Toumma desert of eastern Niger. Appendix I species on both CITES and Migratory Species conventions.
Newby, J. E. in press. Addax nasomaculatus (de Blainville). In: The Mammals of Africa. Vol. 6. Artiodactyla. Kingdon, J. S. & Hoffmann, M. (eds). Academic Press, Amsterdam.
UNEP/CMS. 2006. Sahelo-Saharan Antelopes. Status and perspectives. Report on the conservation status of the six Sahelo-Saharan antelopes. Eds. R.C. Beudels, P. Devillers, R-M. Lafontaine, J. Devillers-Terschuren & M-O. Beudels. CMS SSA Concerted Action. 2nd Ed. CMS Technical Series Publication No 10, 2006. UNEP/CMS Secretariat, Bonn, Germany. Pp. 33-50.
Wacher, T. J., Rabeil, T. & Newby, J. E. 2008. Aerial survey of the Termit & Tin Toumma Regions of Niger – November 2007. Sahelo-Saharan Antelope Project (Niger). Sahara Conservation Fund, ii + 25 pp.
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